Monday, March 9, 2020

Prime Ministers of Canada Since 1867

Prime Ministers of Canada Since 1867 The prime minister of Canada heads the government of Canada and serves as the primary  minister of the sovereign, in this case, the monarch of the United Kingdom.  Sir  John A. Macdonald  was  the first prime minister since Canadian Confederation  and assumed office on July 1,  1867. Chronology of the Canadian Prime Ministers The following list chronicles the Canadian prime ministers and their dates in office since 1867. Prime Minister Dates in Office Justin Trudeau 2015 to Present Stephen Harper 2006 to 2015 Paul Martin 2003 to 2006 Jean Chretien 1993 to 2003 Kim Campbell 1993 Brian Mulroney 1984 to 1993 John Turner 1984 Pierre Trudeau 1980 to 1984 Joe Clark 1979 to 1980 Pierre Trudeau 1968 to 1979 Lester Pearson 1963 to 1968 John Diefenbaker 1957 to 1963 Louis St Laurent 1948 to 1957 William Lyon Mackenzie King 1935 to 1948 Richard B Bennett 1930 to 1935 William Lyon Mackenzie King 1926 to 1930 Arthur Meighen 1926 William Lyon Mackenzie King 1921 to 1926 Arthur Meighen 1920 to 1921 Sir Robert Borden 1911 to 1920 Sir Wilfrid Laurier 1896 to 1911 Sir Charles Tupper 1896 Sir Mackenzie Bowell 1894 to 1896 Sir John Thompson 1892 to 1894 Sir John Abbott 1891 to 1892 Sir John A Macdonald 1878 to 1891 Alexander Mackenzie 1873 to 1878 Sir John A Macdonald 1867 to 1873 More About the Prime Minister Officially, the prime minister is appointed by the  governor general of Canada, but by constitutional convention, the prime minister must have the  confidence  of the elected  House of Commons. Normally, this is the leader of the party caucus with the greatest number of seats in the house. But, if that leader lacks the support  of the majority, the governor general can appoint another leader who has that support or may dissolve parliament and call a new election. By  constitutional convention, a prime minister holds a seat in parliament and, since the early 20th century, this has more specifically meant the House of Commons.

Friday, February 21, 2020

Mandatin Nurse-Patient Ratios Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Mandatin Nurse-Patient Ratios - Essay Example It is where people converge with their lawmakers and meet with the team of legislators and the different committees. This is aslo where they give their testimonies and hearings. Getting the legislative place comes prior to providing change in policy (Abood, 2007 p.21). The nurses should understand the arena for legislation of the state and the federal levels to make their issues get known. 2) Understanding the legislative process steps This is the procedure that creates recommendations, makes and finally sources programs of health, and stages out other strategy and policy domains with healthy policy (Abood, 2007). After a problem becomes an agenda of the public, a bill should be provided, allocated to a panel, strategies organized, and activity of the panel takes the bill to the management before it is taken to any sitting. Each scenario has a similar legal procedure to authoritatively make policy options (Abood, 2007 p.21). Using the strategy, the nurses by understanding the legisla tive process steps can formulate bills that can be presented to their legislatures at the state and the federal levels for their agenda to be forwarded. ... As part of the profession, nurses possess significant influence to change the legislation particularly when proper healthcare has an organization, common choice on a problem. 4) Understanding Committees The committees can be the facilities of education and policy making. This comprise of state and federal levels. The proposed legislation is granted the extreme concern in the panel level. This is during situations when conflicting points of view are analyzed and hammering of the legislation is done. Nurses are going to affect the procedure at this juncture by asking a chance to give a testimony. 5) Communicating with Legislators Law makers at the federal and state levels go through thousands of expenses that encompass wide problems annually. Therefore, it is difficult for the lawmakers to be experienced on every problem and to know every bill. Writing a well-designed correspondence, providing e-mails, making a written summary of the problem with team, and pleasant the legislator to vi sit the office are all methods to get someone's law makers to consider one as an professional on healthcare proper care and to get in touch with when they need details appropriate to nursing and healthcare (Abood, 2007p.24). Increasing My Power to have an influence in votes The ability to efficiently have influence in the various places where the future health care policies are made, and to take advantage of possibilities to present nursing’s viewpoint on the healthcare problems is based upon having a power platform and knowing where and when to apply that effect (Aiken et al, 2010). Power is the ability to show some influence. Furthermore, power is a factor that is inevitable in human relationships, and those people such as nurses who

Wednesday, February 5, 2020

The Cold War and it's Aftermath Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

The Cold War and it's Aftermath - Term Paper Example Instead, political, economical, and ideological differences among the world nations eventually led to the formation of two distinct blocs, the Western and the Eastern. Eventually, the whole world became under the threat of an imminent war between these blocs. But both the Western and Eastern blocs did not try to indulge in a direct fight. Instead, global arm race and ideological conflict became the focal point of the Cold War. Thesis statement: The Cold War resulted in political conflict, military conflict, ideological conflict and global arms race, and eventually led to the decline of communism, growth of capitalism, growth of the U.S. as a global superpower, and the rapid spread of democracy. One can easily identify the fact that the political ideologies of the Western and Eastern blocs were entirely different. To be specific, the political ideology of the Western bloc was democracy. On the other side, the Eastern bloc was deeply influenced by Communist ideology. This fundamental d ifference eventually led to political propaganda and political conflict. Richard Saull states that â€Å"The Cold War, then, was not a genuine international conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union, but primarily a relationship that facilitated each side in its attempts to realize its goals within its own sphere of influence.; for the United States, this was the dominance of the postwar capitalist order and for the USSR the internal security of the rule of the CPSU.†1 To be specific, both the blocs considered that political propaganda is an easy way to influence nonaligned nations. The Eastern bloc under USSR began to influence the neighboring nations and considered that the Western bloc is an imminent threat to their political interest. On the other side, the Western bloc under the U.S. began to influence the European nations. This initiative to divide the whole world nations into two blocs resulted in long lasting political conflict in America, Europe, and As ia. Military conflict The military conflict within the context of Cold War was limited to the context of threatening each other by exhibiting military superiority because both the sides possessed nuclear arms. Besides, both the sides were aware of the possibility of large scale destruction and its economic burden. So, the Western and the Eastern blocs strengthened their military forces, but did not try to attack each other. But the Suez Crisis (say, in the year 1956) the Cuban Missile Crisis (say, in the year 1962) and the â€Å"Able Archer† NATO military exercises (say, in the year 1983) led the whole world to suspect the possibility of military conflict during the Cold War. In short, military coalition and deployment of military forces was common during the Cold War era. Ideological conflict As pointed out, ideological difference was one among the grass root level reasons behind the Cold War. To be specific, the ideological conflict during the Cold War era was between commu nism and capitalism. Raymond P. Ojserkis makes clear that â€Å"A wide variety of other disagreements existed as well, many stemming from the Soviet distaste for the American vision of a postwar world dominated by relatively free trade (with currencies pegged to dollar) and elected governments.†2 One can see that the communist nations under the leadership of USSR tried to install the spirit of communism among their allies. This eventually led to the global propaganda against capitalism. On the other side, the Western bloc under the leaders

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Applications of Technology in Education

Applications of Technology in Education TECHNOLOGY IN EDUCATION Lahore: There is an increasing demand in the country for people who corner the market of sound knowledge of technology to solve the critical problems of technical sphere. This fast growing demand has led to the creation of a number of colleges, departments and universities’ catering in this discipline by providing a specialized and structured degree program of technology based studies as this technical education is indispensable in the presence of current wake of revolutions being made up in the technical world, said by Ajmal Hussain Shah, Principal of Government College Technology, here on Saturday. He further elaborated that the future career of students after ten years of schooling mainly depends upon the marks obtained by them in the matriculation examination. Fifty to sixty percent of the top merit students prefer to get admission in FSc to start their career as engineer and doctor. Among them hardly ten percent of students can get admission in professional studies i.e. engineering universities due to limited number of seats. The rest of eager students go for admission in private sector universities which mainly depends upon their affordability as the education in private sector universities is very expensive. But the percentage is changed in the last two years as now the students prefer to be technology specialist and so they want to get admission in information technology and other degrees related to this field. The present conditions of Pakistan when its ideological and territorial boundaries are at harm, demanded some progress in agriculture and industrial areas but the recent years and revolutions have proved that the more a country is strong in technology the more it has chance to flourish. The need of the hour is to develop technical mind and skills so we can keep pace with the modern world. He argued that the students of Pakistan need to study technology because the world if moving fast is this aspect as now the US is trying to develop hypersonic aircraft and is funding Defense Advanced Research Project Agency. These aircrafts are so fast that they can reach any location on earth within an hour and circle the earth at the equator within two hours. Moreover, the US (NASA) has also launched spacecraft Juno to probe Jupiter and in 2016 it will spend one year in a polar orbit around Jupiter and will send back the information about Jupiter’s magnetic and gravitational field. It will then sort out the valuable information about the planets formed from a molecular cloud about 4.6 billion years ago. Although the Principal didn’t elaborate on â€Å"Government’s effort in the field of technology† but he shed light on the government that it has made amendments in the education system and they are worthy but still the country and its technology need much more attention. In situations where the world has made flying robots and K computers, Pakistan has yet to do a lot in the technology field for which the growing technical institutions and education system play a vital role. It does need high capital, skilled technicians and professional people to teach and perform experiments to enhance this field. Taking the challenge to make Pakistan a technically establish country is big but it will lead this country to an established economy. The information technology instructor Nazrul Islam, Government College Technology, touched upon the importance of IT in education by saying that the computer world is ready to engulf us in software heaven. Some are eager to be dependent upon anything and everything while a few remain hesitant. They are afraid of this cyber world with its new, virtual reality and take it to be the faint and fleeting colours of man’s imagination. Who knows one of these days a solution will be found to all our socio-economic problems. May be we would take heed and save mankind from annihilation. It is this that encourages us at the threshold of our new lives. He further explained that with the digital computer at the crux of these technical revolutions, the internet and the World Wide Web are among the primary drivers and the present youth is in the aura of these advancements. â€Å"what has made the big difference in recent years is not the fact that individuals computers have dramatically improved in their capabilities, but that all those information islands are being connected by digital highways made possible through the use of telecommunications infrastructure by computers, which largely explains why the internet and the WWW have begun to play such a significant role in our use of computers†. He argued that information technology is affecting us as teachers, as individuals and as a society. Our options for education, entertainment, working and a variety of things that we do in our daily lives relating to government and society are radically changing due to developments in information technology. Today, when watching TV or reading a newspaper or magazine, it is impossible to miss coverage on seemingly diverse topics related to information technology- internet, World Wide Web, digital TV, online learning, corporate restructuring, wireless communication, tele-medicine and so on. All these innovation and changes may seem disconnected, yet they all share a common denominator, computers and information technology. The adjustments that we are observing and also experiencing are neither irrelevant nor insignificant. They may be as large as those due to the industrial revolution of the 1800’s, when changes in industrial operations moved people away from agriculture and vill age life onto cities and urban life. This is the information revolution. He justified his argument about technical education by saying that Fujitsu has scored first place in International Supercomputing Conference by achieving a stunning speed of 8.162 petaflops, leaving others lying in dust. The system employed 68,544 CPUs to achieve an incredible 93% computer efficiency. So if we want to be apparent in the modern world we need to have the knowledge of every kind of technology and its possible only when we are educated in this field so which these days the colleges and universities are playing the major role. An educated person knows that in coming years the person with knowledge of technology will be successful because it’s the skill that enables one to understand the present world revolutions. He concluded the discussion by explaining that But one cannot underestimate the fact that new millennium may not be all glory and greatness. In the past, man has developed, progressed and triumphed. But to some extent this has gone to his head, and he is blinded by the luster of success and power. It’s like taking one step forward and one backward. At one moment we hail the victories of man, at another, we wail the same achievements, crippling nature and his own survival. The future, with its surprises and mysteries is opening new doors for us. In the coming years, we may look for untouched frontiers. This technological era may try to plunder other planets far off galaxies. This technology is something quaint and who knows canoeing on the crests and troughs of time, it might find the light, the knowledge and the sense of balance. Then it might transform this world into a safe, glorious place with a bright, singing reign of peace and happiness.

Monday, January 20, 2020

The Altarpiece of Saint Peter :: essays papers

The Altarpiece of Saint Peter Art is a window to the past and there is no place other than the many museums of the world where this is more strongly felt. More specifically, it is also seen through Martin de Soria's work, The Altarpiece of Saint Peter, which was completed around 1480. According to the panel near the altarpiece in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, the piece is an enormous work of tempera on panel with parchment ground; it is a typical Spanish altarpiece of the medieval period and is comprised of a complex arrangement of twenty-six paintings. This piece was chosen as a representative of the medieval period because its emphasis is placed entirely on religion, the style with which it was painted and decorated is hugely characteristic of the medieval period, and finally the painting depicts the economic state of Europe as far as the church was concerned during that time. The piece was chosen primarily because of the magnificent presence that is felt as one enters the room, or cathedral, where the piece may be located. The viewer's eye is drawn immediately to the central figure of Saint Peter who was seated as pope at the time. Giving the main focus of the work to the pope is representative of the importance that was placed on the papal seat. This importance was exemplified, during the time of this altarpiece's creation, by the crisis of the Great Schism. Furthermore, a scene of Christ's crucifixion can be seen directly above the panel of Saint Peter further emphasizing the importance of Christ in the painting, and in the medieval time period as well. Overall, the piece depicts four images from the life of Saint Peter, which surround the center panel on the left and the right sides. In addition, scenes from the lives of the Virgin Mary and St. Blaise, a fourth century martyr, are also present. All the characters in the panels more or less have halos a nd therefore are holy figures. The twelve apostles line the bottom of the panels, perhaps suggesting that they were the foundation of the Catholic religion. Basically, the painting is designed for a church altar, it has religious figures in it, and it is filled with Bibles and images of Christ's crucifixion. All of this relays a strong message to the viewer that this is what is important in life; one should pay close attention to religion and have respect for it.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

The Colonial Experience in West Africa

The Twentieth Century brought with it vast changes for the peoples of West Africa. The yoke of colonialism bound them together into a new political, economic, and social order. It was as if hundreds of years of history had suddenly ended, and begun again anew. In the wake of the Berlin West Africa Conference, in 1885, the great powers of Europe – Britain, France, Germany, and even Portugal and Belgium – had carved up West Africa among themselves. European overlords either completely replaced, or else adopted a â€Å"supervisory† position over the native African authorities. Proud kingdoms, like those of the Asante, Benin, and Dahomey, found themselves forced to adapt or disappear, as West Africans struggled to make sense of a world that had been turned completely upside down and inside out. For â€Å"inside out,† could easily describe the reversal of economic roles that came along with European conquest. Formerly, European traders had stayed close to the coast, allowing the African rulers and merchants to supply Europe and her New World colonies with slaves and other â€Å"merchandise. The British had finally succeeded in ending the slave trade some years before, and many of the coastal kingdoms of West Africa had languished as a result. Some had been almost wholly dependent upon the trade in human beings – now there would have to be new sources of revenue. For the most part, these new sources of income would be developed by Europeans who would exploit West Africa's people and resources for the benefit of their home countries. However, the Africans would also learn from their new masters. Some of them would obtain a Western education, or work to introduce the ideas of the modern industrial world to Africa. European science, technology, education, political, economic, cultural, and religious ideas would all have a profound impact on West Africa. The pre-colonial relationship between Europeans and West Africans was one of mutual trade. In the first half of the Nineteenth Century, Europeans vastly increased their purchases of palm oil, and also continued to buy tropical hardwoods, while Africans received the products of Europe's industrial revolution: cotton and woolen textiles and iron. 1 It was only as direct European influence began to increase that economic conditions were gradually modified. The introduction of cocoa by European missionaries in the 1860s, led to its becoming a major cash crop and primary export by the earliest period of European colonial domination, around 1900. Gold and coca were the mainstays of the economy in the Gold Coast (now Ghana). To keep up with their seemingly insatiable demands for these and other products, the British, French, and other others, introduced more modern techniques of production. In particular, they employed industrial methods of mining, and built railroads and port facilities to enable a vastly increased flow of goods. Yet it would be wrong to think that was no African response to changed economic conditions. Already, in the late 1800s, African merchant families, such as the Sarbahs, began to encourage rubber production: In contrast to the palm oil trade, the rubber trade, because of a greater monetary return per unit of labour input and weight, drew into its orbit thousands of producers from the deep interior, including Sefwi, Kwahu, Asante and the distant states of Brong-Ahafo, all more than 100 miles from the coast. The rubber trade also gave rise to a new group of middle-men or broken from the Fanti states, Asin, Denkyera, and Akim, who carried the trade to the further limits of the forest zone and in so doing accelerated the extension of the cash economy. Rubber became a major export with shipments totalling well over one million pounds volume in 1886; and by 1893, the Gold Coast ranked first among the rubber exporting countries of the British Empire and third in the world. 3 Africans were, therefore, fully able to adapt themselves to European conditions in order to increase the size and extent of their markets, even if this necessitated adopting new techniques, and even entirely new crops, like rubber. On the down side, an economy based on growing and harvesting rubber latex caused significant social upheavals. The influence of the coastal mercantile families and kingdoms waned in favor of inland economic interests. 4 Families like the Sarbahs expanded their trading networks deep into the Interior, opening up branch story, cajoling purchasers, and further turning economic focus toward the one paramount crop. They also became increasingly dependent on fluctuations in the European market. 5 Furthermore, the conflict between European sponsored economic development, and meddlesome European control can be seen in the 1920's Gold Coast, where British Governor Guggisberg pursued a policy that was in many ways detrimental to the future of the African peoples under his control: Anti-modernisation, anti-urban, and anti-development. Regulations and barriers against innovation proliferated†¦. Official policy did nothing to encourage the emergence of a commercial middle class. Its effect instead was to establish a highly formidable machinery of bureaucratic control†¦. The most damaging effect of colonial policy on the ground was the way in which it hindered the emergence of a ‘native modernizing cadre', one result of which ‘was to divert into long and bitter anti-colonial struggles much brilliant talent which could have been used creatively in development sectors'. 6 The subordination of African interests to European profits condemned West Africans to economic backwards through lack of skills and genuine opportunities. The lack of skill and opportunity open to native West Africans leads naturally to a discussion of European education and the new horizons it presented. Prior to the era of colonial domination, West Africa's peoples had had little contact with Western ideas, except for he occasional interactions with Christian missionaries. The states, large and small, of West Africa had been universally pre-industrial, and had possessed nothing in the way of modern communications, transportation, or even the kind of complex educational and political institutions that existed in the Christian and Muslim worlds. Missionaries were the first to introduce Western educational methods into West Africa: For them education took place in schools, where obedient pupils listened to teachers, took examinations, and received diplomas certifying knowledge. Discipline was important, not only to make the children study, but also to mold desirable habits and (that was usually considered to be even more important than learning itself). 7 On the whole, Western education extended only to teaching subjects that Europeans thought would be useful to their â€Å"charges. Vocational training was sufficient for people who would never have to govern themselves. 8 Nevertheless, an exposure to the Western academic tradition inspired many African families to push for a higher level of education for their children. â€Å"Few pupils wanted to undergo the cost and the hardship of study, only to be prepared for a rural life and a low living standard. † 9 In the 1930's, in French West Africa, Colonial Government officials began to formulate a new approach that appeared to look forward to a synthesis of the European and Native traditions. France's redefined mission civilisatrice [civilizing mission] was to be fulfilled†¦ by teaching the subject populations how to live according to â€Å"authentic African traditions,†Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ This vision of France's role overseas as the protector of indigenous cultures in the colonies challenged earlier presentations of the colonial mission that had presented France as the bearer of â€Å"European civilization† and â€Å"French culture† destined to bring Africa out of the â€Å"darkness† in which many late-nineteenth-century colonizers claimed its people lived. 10 The French administrators went so far as to strongly encourage African arts and crafts, sponsor African festivals – even to teach Africans â€Å"how to be African†(! ). In order to avoid contamination by native teachers already trained in the earlier European methods, the French actually brought in teachers from France to lead the Africans in the study of their native West African culture; these teachers being observed leading Natives in local folk dances, etc. 11 Such plans represented an interesting attempt to keep Native elites loyal to France, while at the same time, well-rooted in their Native lands and cultures. Ostensibly, such practices would avoid the â€Å"stateless† quality of Africans educated under the earlier system. Nonetheless, exposure to European educational and economic ideas – even when those ideas were fused with African traditions – could not forestall an African thirst for greater freedom and opportunity along European lines. Colonial rulers often imposed a dual system of justice – a European one for major offenses, and a Native one for those offenses deemed minor by the Colonial Authorities. The French, early on, abolished the Native courts and legal system, except in rare cases, while even under the British, it was quite clear that Native justice was distinctly secondary to the â€Å"real† justice of the Europeans. 12 Dichotomies such as these further entrenched notions of West African inferiority. The French instituted a policy of not interfering in African customs and culture, as long as those customs did not conflict with the French aim of achieving some sort of â€Å"evolution† among Africans. 13 It was taken utterly for granted that African culture was inherently inferior to French civilization. By contrast, the British authorities endeavored to maintain equilibrium by combining traditional African smallholder society with the demands of the British Cocoa Board. Rural West African society was to be maintained at all costs to prevent a breakdown of the social order, such as occurred when jobs were scarce and peasants left for the cities in the hope of finding work. There, oddly enough, the British actually encouraged the growth of an urban petit bourgeoisie in the dream of preventing rebellion. With the collapse of world markets during the Great Depression, urban and peasant unrest increased – with the noticeable difference that now a radicalized bourgeoisie was available to lead that unrest. 14 In short, the European colonial administrations of West Africa both helped and exploited Africans. With their thirst for profits, and a belief in the superiority of their own institutions, technology, and culture, they dreamed of â€Å"advancing† the native population while at the same time keeping that population economically productive, and under firm European control. Yet in so doing, they introduced many attributes of the modern world to the peoples of West Africa. European notions of development, education, and justice split traditional African life into separate public and private spheres – especially for those who embraced European learning and techniques. 15 The divide that grew up between Europeanized Africans, and those who have remained closer to their traditional ways of life remains a problem even today. One of the lasting legacies of European Colonization in West Africa was this impartial transformation; this creation of a society existing in two worlds, trained properly for neither. Once opened to the full force of the industrial (and later post-industrial) economy, the traditional African economy could not compete. At the same time, not enough West Africans were educated, in the European sense, to provide the skills and leadership to easily lead their people into a new era. European rule has left West Africa with many choices, not all of them good.

Friday, January 3, 2020

Advancements for Women throughout History - 1125 Words

In 2014, on average there is about 4.35 million more women with college degrees than men. In the 1500’s women were treated with considerable respect for the most part. However they weren’t entitled to any political rights especially married women, such as voting or working in the same field as men. They were only allowed to work in fields such as the clothing industry, maid services, or in the medical field as caretakers. Being that women had fewer rights than men this prevented them from reaching their ultimate limit. If women are obsolete, then men will soon be extinct. This is discrimination in 2014. Where did this patriarchal society come from? According to Collins patriarchy is a system of society or government in which men hold the power and women are largely excluded from it. This is synonymous to the oppression of women. We assume the lack of evidence which tells us that all societies have been patriarchal because it has been rooted in biology or in the environm ent. It is implausible to believe men actually came together from all over the world with the conclusion suppressing women was acceptable. Some believe if there had not been patriarchal societies we would all be completely destroyed. This was once a necessary mechanism used for survival that quickly died out due to women stepping out with confidence. Leapfrogs new study shows baby girls at the age of two possess larger vocabularies and speak sooner than baby boys. However, despite this report primaryShow MoreRelatedMarketing and Gillette1387 Words   |  6 Pagesinnovation at Gillette throughout its history. Has Gillette been a victim of its own success? Has product innovation in wet-shaving market come to an end? Explain? King C. Gillette has founded Gillette in 1901. It was one of the first great multinational organizations and a marvel of marketing effectiveness. 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